Global Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture Engineering

Global Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture Engineering

Volume : 2
Issue : 1
Frequency : 3 Issue(s)/Year
Issn : Applied (Print)
Applied (Online)
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About this journal
Articles of this Issue
1. Mutual Interference Of Bridge Piers Placed In Staggered Arrangement On
Author Dr. Mubeen Beg Download Pdf
Pages 1 to 13
Further Information

 The work reported herein is concerned with a carefully controlled extensiveexperimental study of local

scour around a group of bridge piers placed in staggered arrangement in uniform sediment at varied
pier spacing under steady uniform flow clear water scour conditions at flow intensity equal to 0.95.The
objective of present study is to investigate the effect of mutual interference of bridge piers placed in
staggered arrangement on the scour depth.To accomplish the taska series of experiments was
conducted wherein three circular pier models of same diameter were used. Two of the three pier
models were set on upstream across the flume at right angles to the flow direction at fixed centre to
centre lateral spacing between the piers. The third pier model was located on downstream along the
bisector of the upstream pier models at varied clear longitudinal pier spacing The lateral centre to
centre pier spacing was so  set  that the scour depths at two upstream piers were free from the effect of
lateral mutual interference and only the interference of the downstream pier remains to affect the
scour depth at piers. The experimental data on variation of scour depth are collected, processed and
analyzed to interpret the results. Present study reveals that the piers placed in staggered arrangement
at close proximity have considerable mutual interference effect on scour depth which may lead to
bridge failure, if pier group effect is ignored and bridge piers are designed merely as an isolated
pier.Themaximum effect of mutual interference is found at relative pier spacing of 10. 
2. The Impact of Sustainable Architecture on the Occupants of Office Buildings
Author Sati Sekar Kinanthi, Zulkiflee Bin Abdul Samad Download Pdf
Pages 14 to 44
Further Information

 Sustainable architecture has the well-being of both the environment and occupants as the centre of its

focus, where it benefits both simultaneously. This study addresses the impact of sustainable building on
the occupants of office buildings in Malaysia. Embedded cross-case case study was conducted on 3
certified green buildings in Malaysia, where sustainable building design elements of the 3 buildings
were studied. Surveys were distributed, and interviews were conducted on the occupants of the
buildings to see the workability of the design, and how building occupants are affected by it. The result
revealed that occupants perceive the IEQ of the green buildings to be affecting their work
performance, mood, sense of well-being and motivation in a positive manner, and that it is the natural
element incorporated in sustainable architecture that affect them positively, as well as moderate
stimuli exuded by the IEQ of the green buildings. On the basis of the finding of this study, it was
concluded that sustainable architecture has a positive impact on building occupants in green office
buildings in Malaysia.  
3. Modular Construction: A Sustainable Construction Technology
Author Sirajuddin Ahmed and Chandra Pratap Singh and Siddharta Gautam Download Pdf
Pages 45 to 56
Further Information

 Modular building is an advanced architectural construction method. ‘Permanent Modular

Construction’ (PMC) is a part of modular construction methods which found to be innovative and
sustainable construction delivery method. This method of construction basically performed off-site,
using lean manufacturing technique for prefabricating single or multi-story building construction in
transportable module sections to the actual site location. Designing of such system is highly complex
process and demands a systematic approach. In PMC use of wood, steel, or concrete & fly ash can be
applied, considering fly ash in concrete increases its workability and enhances thermal performance,
additionally fly ash concrete blocks replaced the traditional clay blocks because they does not contains
expansive soil cause walls and floors to crack with fluxes of temperature and humidity. This paper
presents a brief introduction basic principles and application fields of PMC. The use if PMC is found
motivating because of over-riding client requirements for speedy (50% faster than conventional
construction) construction, quality improvement and for early return of their investment. There is a
noticeable trend to use modular construction in social housing, where period of construction connects
the economy of production scale and to reduce disruption in congested areas of a city.
4. Importance of Hydraulic Modelling in the Development of Mega Container
Author A.A. Purohit, A. Basu, K.A. Chavan, M.D. Kudale Download Pdf
Pages 57 to 77
Further Information

 Among many developing countries in the world, India is also developing its infrastructures, especially

waterfront facilities like berths, jetties and docks. Mumbai being epicenter of India’s trade and
commerce, two ports viz. Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru port (JN) are developing mega waterfront
facilities to cater for berthing of modern ultra large container carriers. Mumbai Port being on leeside
of Salsette Island and JN Port being well inside, tidal phenomenon of macro semi-diurnal type (range
5 m) is more dominant than waves and is the governing factor in the design of waterfront facilities. JN
port is developing a 2 km long mega container terminal and for fixing its location and orientation, it
requires thorough knowledge of complex hydrodynamics of the region. The layout of terminal was
finalized by conducting hydraulic model studies using a well calibrated physical model for Mumbai
region with Scale of 1:400 (H) and 1:80 (V). 
The studies carried out reveal that during flood phase of tide, flow field is parallel to the berth at
northern end, while due to bifurcation of flow at Southern end of terminal undesirable strong tidal
currents at a deviation of 180 approaches the terminal face aligned at 420 N.  However, during ebb
phase, scenario is reversed. Presence of solid approach bund at landing jetty near northern end of
terminal forms undesirable eddies, while at southern end (2km), flow direction is safe for berthing.
Study of flow field provides valuable information to modeler in nullifying the adverse effect at both the
ends of terminal during flood/ebb. The replacement of bund at landing jetty by trestle on piles, while to
guide the flow at the Southern end of terminal during flood, extension of reclamation bund by 200m on
leeside of terminal achieves the desired flow conditions all along 2 km long  berthing face of the mega
terminal. Also, the gap between reclamation bund and berth face should be minimum to avoid
formation of secondary currents at berth. Thus hydraulic modeling technique was utilised effectively to
evolve optimum layout and alignment of mega terminal from hydrodynamic considerations.

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